This set identifies some of the leading drivers linked to urbanisation. Half the world’s population is now urban, and this proportion, particularly in India and China, is rapidly increasing.

The drivers are arranged and presented within societal, technological, economic, environmental and political domains known as the STEEP framework. Each carefully designed card depicts a single driver.

The set was devised by the Foresight, Innovation and Incubation team at Arup, a group tasked with exploring emerging trends and how they impact upon the business of Arup and its clients. The cards include powerful images contributed by photographers from all over the world who are affiliated to The result is a vibrant visual record of research, which can also be used as a tool for discussion groups, personal prompts, for workshop events or as a “thought for the week”.


growth Front
growth Back


transport Front
transport Back


employment Front
employment Back

urban footprint

urban footprint Front
urban footprint Back

rural areas

rural areas Front
rural areas Back